Faculty Guidance for CPE Activity Planning

The University of Florida College of Pharmacy Office of Continuing Education (ACPE) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to provide continuing education for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. The Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE) Planning Form for has been designed based on ACPE criteria and accepted adult learning principles.  The faculty guidance is intended to help faculty meet the program planning requirements.

For questions or more information, please contact our office.


Overview

The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) defines continuing education as “a structured educational activity designed or intended to support the continuing development of pharmacists and/or pharmacy technicians to maintain and enhance their competence.  Continuing pharmacy education (CPE) should promote problem-solving and critical thinking and be applicable to the practice of pharmacy.”

Continuing pharmacy education activities must follow an outcomes-based educational model (Figure 1). Each step of the model is associated with particular planning activities, and the model as a whole calls for accredited programs to be improved over time based on their performance in achieving their stated educational goals.

Figure 1: Five Required Elements to Address in a CPE Activity 

A flowchart that illustrates the five elements required in a continuing pharmacy education application

Required elements of ACPE continuing education program applications

Adapted from the Continuing Education Administrator Workshop in Nashville, TN on July 15, 2017.


Needs Assessment and Gap Analysis

A needs assessment is a systematic process used to identify the educational gap/need between an individual’s current level and the desired level of knowledge, skills, or attitudes. The educational gap/need that is identified guides the development of the educational activity, including the educational need it fills and its objectives. Separate needs assessments are required for pharmacist and technicians.  For the needs assessment to be effective it must be completed prior to planning the CPE activity.

There are three key components that must be addressed in a needs assessment (Figure 2):

  • Identification of the actual state of practice
  • Definition of the ideal state of practice
  • Determination that there is an educational gap between the actual and ideal practice

Figure 2: Identifying the Educational Gap


Adapted from the Continuing Education Administrator Workshop in Nashville, TN on July 15, 2017.

Reasons for an educational gap may include:

  • Lack of early recognition of X,Y, Z
  • Inappropriate management of X, Y, Z
  • Challenges to stay current with rapid advances in the field, new drugs, etc.
  • Lack of experience in managing or treating X,Y,Z
  • Lack of education or training; training is inadequate/out of date
  • Condition is poorly understood

Performing and documenting a formal needs assessment process is an essential step in developing educational activities. This process helps to ensure that the educational activity is addressing a true existing need and is doing so in a way that will help learners to meet this need. Table 1 provides a sample needs assessment and educational gap analysis for an activity that is designed to change learner competence.

Table 1: Sample Needs Assessment/Educational Gap Analysis Planning

Educational Need Current Best Practice Educational Gap 
Increased knowledge on the mechanism of actions for different pain conditions and the role of medical therapies in pain management Drugs that are often prescribed for pain relief are not always the same depending on mechanism of action of the pain symptoms Physicians and pharmacists require additional education to fully understand the differences between pain conditions and appropriate therapies for pain management
Identification of pain conditions and referral of patients to pain specialists for proper management of pain conditions Widespread pain is presented and treated in primary care as multiple episodes of regional pain Primary Care Physicians lack the knowledge to properly diagnose chronic widespread pain, which is common in the community
Understanding of the value in patient education for compliance with prescribing practices Patients are more likely to remain compliant with prescribing information if they can better understand their condition and treatment regimens Physicians and pharmacists are unfamiliar with effective patient education materials to manage chronic pain
Increased understanding of the practice strategies that perpetuate effective treatment plans Clinicians must carefully rule out other causes of chronic widespread pain, look for common coexisting syndromes and maximize treatment with both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment Physicians and pharmacists lack the knowledge of basic strategies for effective treatment plans that include assessment, documentation, and continuous evaluation

Adapted from the Continuing Education Administrator Workshop in Nashville, TN on July 15, 2017.


Activity Type

Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE) activities are categorized into three types: knowledge-, application-, and practice-based.  Prior to educational program planning and accreditation, each educational activity will be reviewed by CPE Office faculty and categorized into one of the activity types based on the activity objectives, purpose, content, desired learning outcomes, and activity length.  All accredited activities will align with the office’s mission and goals and will meet the educational needs of pharmacists and/or pharmacy technicians.

Types of CPE Activities

  • Knowledge-based CPE activity:
    • These CPE activities are primarily constructed to transmit knowledge (e.g., facts).
    • The facts must be based on evidence as accepted in the literature by the health care professions.
    • The minimum amount of credit for these activities is 15 minutes or 0.25 contact hour.
  • Application-based CPE activity:
    • These CPE activities are primarily constructed to apply the information learned in the time allotted.
    • The information must be based on evidence as accepted in the literature by the health care professions.
    • The minimum amount of credit for these activities is 60 minutes or one contact hour.
  • Practice-based CPE activity:
    • These CPE activities are primarily constructed to instill, expand, or enhance practice competencies through the systematic achievement of specified knowledge, skills, attitudes, and performance behaviors.
    • The information within the practice-based CPE activity must be based on evidence as accepted in the literature by the health care professions.
    • The formats of these CPE activities should include a didactic component and a practice experience component.
    • The UF COP CPE Office uses an instructional design strategy for practice-based activities that is rationally sequenced, curricular based, and supports achievement of the stated professional competencies.
    • The minimum amount of credit for these activities is 15 contact hours.

Learning Objectives

Learning objectives should be written after the completion of the needs assessment and should describe what the speaker wants the learner to be able to do upon completion of the activity (Figure 3).  The type of learning objective you develop will be determined by the type of activity you are preparing (knowledge-, application-, or practice-based).  Learning objectives should state what the pharmacist and/or technician should be able to do at the completion of the learning activity.

Learning objectives must be different for pharmacists and technicians as their professional responsibilities differ.  When defining course objectives, please refer to Bloom’s Taxonomy (Figure 4) for guidance on the type of objectives that are appropriate for your learning activity. The UF COP CPE office provides a List of Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs for further help in writing objectives.

Figure 3: Stages of CPE Development 

Adapted from the Continuing Education Administrator Workshop in Nashville, TN on July 15, 2017.

 

Figure 4: Bloom’s Taxonomy, 2000

Bloom BS (ed.). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York: McKay 1956. Adapted from Phillips, L. The Continuing Education Guide. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa, 1994.

Learning objectives should:

  • Be specific and measurable
  • Be developed to specifically address the identified educational need of the pharmacist and technician
  • Separate objectives are required for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians
  • Match the activity type selected (knowledge, application, or practice)
  • Be addressed by an active learning activity
  • Be covered by a learning assessment


Teaching and Learning Methods

All CPE activities must incorporate active participation and involvement of the learner through the use of active learning strategies. Active learning strategies should be included in all types of CPE activities, including live presentations and home-study activities, and should be determined by the CPE activity planned. The Active Learning Strategies for Use with ACPE’s CPE Activity Types and Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels document provides guidance on developing active learning activities based on activity type and Bloom’s Taxonomy Level.


Learning Assessment

Each educational activity must include a learning assessment to allow pharmacists and/or pharmacy technicians to assess their achievement of the learning objectives and learned content.  A learning assessment objectively validates what learners can and cannot do. The learning assessment must be consistent with the activity type and objectives.

CPE Educational Presenters/Faculty must:

  • engage learners by incorporating appropriate active learning strategies into the presentation
  • assess learner’s achievement of the learning objectives and notify learners of their performance on the assessment

Speakers may select formal or informal learning assessment techniques. Formal assessment techniques such as tests and quizzes are typically individualized, written, and graded. The assessment must be consistent with the activity type (knowledge-, application-, or practice-based) and with the learning objectives. Each learning objective must be covered by a learning assessment question and assessment methods should be aligned with instructional strategies.

  • Knowledge-based CPE activity: Each CPE activity in this category must include assessment questions structured to determine recall of facts.
  • Application-based CPE activity: Each CPE activity in this category must include case studies structured to address application of the principles learned.
  • Practice-based CPE activity: Each CPE activity in this category must include formative and summative assessments that demonstrate that the pharmacists and technicians achieved the stated objectives.

Table 2: Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Strategies 

Instructional Strategies Assessment Strategies Knowledge-Based Activity Application-Based Activity  Practice-Based Activity 
 Lectures, readings  MCQ questions that may be either embedded in the presentation and provided at the end of the presentation. Another option is pre- and post-tests.  X  X  X
 Lectures, reading assignments  Games and quizzes to practice recall  X  X  X
 Demonstration Skills assessment using a checklist/rubric  X  X
Example of performance/product followed by learner  practice Skills assessment using a checklist/rubric  X  X
 Interactive case study Assessment questions that are embedded in the presentation  X  X
 Interactive scenario Assessment questions that are embedded in the presentation  X  X
 Role Play  Skills assessment using a checklist/ rubric  X  X
 Simulation  Skills assessment using a checklist/ rubric  X
 Application exercises (online, classroom or lab-based experience)  Assessment questions that are embedded in the exercises or at the end of the exercise  X  X
Practice exercises (in the practice setting) Observation based assessment (eg, rubric) or assessment of products documenting performance (submission of progress note, patient workup) X X

Assessment Feedback

Learning assessment feedback must be provided in an appropriate, timely, and constructive manner.  It is important for the learner to be able to assess their achievement of the learned content.

Appropriate activities to provide learner feedback in live CPE activities may include group discussion, case presentation with explanation of correct answers, or use of an answer response system with audience discussion. For home-based CPE activities, assessment feedback may include providing correct answers to questions after learner completes the assessment and providing the rationale for correct and incorrect answers to the learner after completion of the assessment.

Verbal and written feedback may be provided as follows:

  • Knowledge-based activity: Feedback must include the correct response to a question.  For incorrect questions, the provider is encouraged to communicate that the question was answered incorrectly and provide the rationale for the correct response.
  • Application-based activity: Feedback must include the correct response to questions.  For incorrect responses, the provider is encouraged to explain the rational for the correct responses.
  • Practice-based activity: Feedback should be provided based on the formative and summative assessments that were used to demonstrate that the pharmacists or technician achieved the stated objectives.

Home-Based CPE Activities

For home-based CPE activities, assessment feedback may include providing correct answers to questions after learner completes the assessment and providing the rationale for correct and incorrect answers to the learner after completion of the assessment.

Live CPE Activities

Appropriate activities to provide learner feedback in live CPE activities may include group discussion, case presentation with explanation of correct answers, or use of an answer response system with audience discussion.  Assessment feedback should be provided in real-time to the audience.  An explanation of the answer should be provided and learners should have the opportunity to ask follow-up questions.

Depending on the activity, formal and/or informal techniques may be used. Informal techniques generally include participant discussion. Formal techniques include tests and quizzes and are typically individualized, written, and graded.


Activity Announcements

All materials that offer the opportunity to participate, purchase, or register for a CPE activity must include specific information as identified by the ACPE. Please review and use the Continuing Pharmacy Education Activity Announcement Requirements when composing your activity announcement and/or use the Activity Announcement Template.


Topic Designator Definitions

There are seven topic designators and each defines the topic the activity is related.  The appropriate topic designator must be chosen prior to the course being added to ACPE.

  • 01: Disease State Management/Drug Therapy– activities that address drugs, drug therapy, and/or disease states.
  • 02: AIDS Therapy– activities that address therapeutic, legal, social, ethical, or psychological issues related to the understanding and treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS.
  • 03: Law Related to Pharmacy Practice– activities that address federal, state, or local laws and/or regulations affecting the practice of pharmacy.
  • 04: General Pharmacy– activities that address topics relevant to the practice of pharmacy other than those included in the classifications of drug/disease therapy related, HIV/AIDS therapy related, and law.
  • 05: Patient Safety– activities that address topics relevant to the prevention of healthcare errors and the elimination or mitigation of patient injury caused by healthcare errors.
  • 06: Immunizations– activities related to the provision of immunizations, i.e., recommend immunization schedules, administration procedures, proper storage and disposal, and record keeping. This also includes review for appropriateness or contraindication and identifying and reporting adverse drug events and providing necessary first aid.
  • 07: Compounding– activities related to sterile, nonsterile, and hazardous drug compounding for humans and animals. This includes best practices and USP quality assurance standards, environmental testing and control, record keeping, error detection and reporting, and continuous quality improvement processes.

Legal and Ethical Requirements

Standards for Commercial Support

The UF COP CPE Office must ensure that all elements of activity planning are conducted independently of a commercial interest and that the educational content is presented with full disclosure and equitable balance.  Educational topics and learning activities must be distinguished from topics and learning activities that are promotional or appear to be intended for the purpose of endorsing a specific commercial drug, device or other commercial product or service.

The UF COP Office must:

  • ensure independence in planning and delivery of CPE activities, and
  • implement a mechanism to prospectively identify and resolve conflicts of interest during the planning process, and
  • use commercial support appropriately, and
  • present content that is without commercial bias, and
  • disclose required information.

The CPE activity must not convey commercial bias in any way. For example, the generic names of a drug must always accompany any mention of a brand name drug.

Disclosure and Resolution of Relevant Financial Relationships

The UF COP CPE Office requires all members of the Educational Activities Planning Committee (Activity Director, Speaker, Author(s), and Planning Committee Member[s]) to disclose all relevant financial relationships and conflicts of interest with any commercial interest by completing a disclosure form.  “Relevant financial relationships” are defined as financial relationships in any amount occurring within the past 12 months that create a conflict of interest.

Any individual who refuses to disclose relevant financial relationships will be disqualified from being a CPE Activity planning committee member, speaker, or author, and cannot have control of, or responsibility for, the development, management, presentation or evaluation of the CPE activity. Prior to the learning activity taking place the learner must be provided with all disclosure information.

Options to resolve relevant financial relationships and conflicts of interest are listed below. Individuals in question can take an active role to help resolve the conflict.

  • Comprehensive review of relevant literature
  • Presentation of evidence-based guidelines
  • Review of guidelines and recommendations of national professional societies or pharmacy organizations
  • Peer review of presentation materials
  • Other strategies (individual must provide description of strategy)

Any individual with a conflict that cannot be resolved will be disqualified from being a CPE Activity planning committee member, speaker, or author, and cannot have control of, or responsibility for, the development, management, presentation or evaluation of the CPE activity (Policy 15, Office of Continuing Education, Policies and Procedures Manual).


Copyright and Citations

Copyright

Copyright is a form of intellectual property law governing ownership of works created by individuals or groups. Content authors do not need to register their work with the U.S. Copyright Office or include a copyright notice in order for it to be protected.

The UF COP CPE Office requires all educational activities to use the appropriate American Medical Association citations for references and images (e.g., PowerPoint presentations, monographs, etc.).  References must be included throughout the educational activity and listed as its conclusion.

Material That Must Be Cited

  • Any copyrighted evidence-based sources (e.g., journal article)
  • Anything that is not your own creation or idea including your own previous work
  • Anything easily accessible and freely available (e.g., Google Search, CDC, NIH, etc.)
  • Anything in the public domain or under a Creative Commons license

Materials That Do Not Need to Be Cited:

  • Original experience, thoughts, or the results of your own experiments
  • Common knowledge including myths, legends, historical events, and widely accepted facts

Use only images, graphics, or other media that you have obtained permission to use. If you have permission to use a copyrighted work as part of the presentation, include a brief statement and the reference, to that effect as a caption to that image. For example, “Chart included courtesy of the University of Florida,” as well as the reference.

For images that are in the public domain or available under a Creative Commons license, include a caption such as “Image available under a Creative Commons license,” as well as a reference.  For more information regarding AMA format and proper referencing, please reference the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors.


Content, Formatting Slides,and Presentation Tips

Educational activities should be organized in a way that is mindful of the needs of learners, paying special attention to the learning activity’s target audience (pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, or both; activity type, and objectives). Every concept that is important to your learning activity should be explained clearly in your presentation. Your presentation must be evidence based and, accordingly, use current, appropriate references throughout. It must also contain educational content that corresponds with each of the educational activities learning objectives.

Slide Review

Educational activities using PowerPoint presentations will be peer-reviewed using the following criteria:

  • Slide 2: The speakers disclosures are listed
    • Speaker X has disclosed that she/he has no relevant financial disclosures. No one else in a position to control content has any financial relationships to disclose.
    • Speaker X has disclosed that he/she is <insert disclosure>.   No one else in a position to control content has any financial relationships to disclose.
  • Slide 3: ACPE official statement and logo included
    • “The University of Florida is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.”
  • Slide 4: List of final, approved activity objectives
  • The stated learning objectives were met
  • The educational content is evidence-based (e.g., references are current and appropriate)
  • The educational activity is free of commercial bias
  • The educational activity is well organized with concepts clearly explained
  • The educational content lacks grammar and/or spelling errors
  • The slide layout is visually appealing and easy to read (e.g., the font is easy to read and appropriately sized)
  • The number of slides is appropriate for the allotted presentation time
  • The images and graphics are free of copyright issues and cited appropriately
  • All brand names are accompanied by the generic drug name(s)
  • Two to three active learning questions are included in the presentation
  • The presentation meets the requirements of the activity type (e.g., knowledge -, application – , practice-based)

Tips for Creating and Delivering an Effective Presentation

Speakers are encouraged to review the Tips for Creating and Delivering an Effective Presentation when creating a PowerPoint slide presentation.

  • Minimize the number of slides to maintain a clear message
  • Choose a font and size the audience can read from a distance
  • Keep your text simple. Use bullets or short sentences. Avoid long paragraphs
  • Use graphics when appropriate to convey your message
  • Use charts and graphs when appropriate to help convey your messages
  • Use a slide background that is subtle
  • Use high contrast colors between background text color and text color
  • Check spelling and grammar
  • Practice your presentation prior to the day of the activity
  • Arrive to your presentation location at least 30 minutes early
  • Verify the equipment is working properly
  • Test your presentation using the AV system provided to ensure it is compatible and that your presentation displays correctly
  • Avoid moving the pointer or “clicker” unconsciously
  • Stay on time
  • Monitor your audiences behavior